The concept of ecology as a science originated in the US, since it was for our country for the first time that people realized the consequences of the consumer attitude to nature. In the twentieth century, some industrially developed areas were on the verge of an environmental disaster due to the following activities:
- mining of minerals;
- use of vehicles;
- emission of industrial wastes;
- burning of energy sources;
- deforestation, etc.
All these actions were not considered detrimental for the time being. Already much later, everyone realized that the development of industry adversely affects the health of people and animals, and also pollutes the environment. After that independent experts together with scientists have proved, that pollution of water, air and soil bears harm to all living beings. Since then, the US has adopted a “green” economy program.
The problem of deforestation is one of the most acute on the planet. Its impact on the environment is difficult to overestimate. No wonder the trees are called the lungs of the Earth. They generally constitute a single ecosystem that affects the life of various species of flora, fauna, soil, atmosphere, water regime. Many people do not even guess what disaster a deforestation will bring, if not stop it.
The problem of deforestation
At the moment, the problem of cutting down trees is relevant for all the continents of the earth, but this problem is most acute in the countries of Western Europe, South America, and Asia. Intensive destruction of forests leads to the problem of deforestation. The territory, freed from trees, turns into a poor landscape, becomes unsuitable for life.
To understand how close the disaster, you should pay attention to a number of facts:
- more than half of the world’s tropical forests have already been destroyed, and a centurion will be needed to restore them;
- now only 30% of the land is occupied by forests;
- Regular tree cutting leads to an increase in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide by 6-12%;
- every minute the territory of the forest disappears, which in size is equal to several football fields.
Reasons for deforestation
Among the common causes of deforestation is the following:
- wood has a high value as a building material and raw materials for paper, cardboard, the manufacture of household items;
- often destroy forests for the expansion of new agricultural land;
for laying roads and roads
- In addition, a large number of trees suffer from forest fires, which are constantly due to improper handling of fire. They also happen during the drought season.
Quite often trees are cut down illegally. In many countries of the world there are not enough institutions and people who can control the process of deforestation. In turn, entrepreneurs of this sphere sometimes make violations, increasing the amount of deforestation annually. It is also believed that the wood shows up on the market, supplied by poachers, who do not have permission to operate. There is an opinion that the introduction of a high duty on timber would significantly reduce the sale of timber abroad, and, accordingly, would reduce the number of felled trees.
Effects of deforestation
The main result of deforestation is a decrease in the forest area, which has a lot of consequences:
- climate change;
- environmental pollution;
- ecosystem change;
- destruction of a large number of plants;
- animals are forced to leave habitual habitats;
- deterioration of the atmosphere;
- deterioration of the water cycle in nature;
- the destruction of soil, which will lead to soil erosion;
- the emergence of environmental refugees.
- Permission for deforestation
Companies that deal with cutting down trees must obtain a special permit for this activity. To do this, you need to submit an application, a plan of the area where the cutting is carried out, a description of the types of trees that will be felled, and a number of papers for coordination with various services. In general, it is difficult to obtain such permission. However, this does not completely exclude the illegality of deforestation. It is recommended to tighten this procedure, while it is still possible to save the forests on the planet.
Picture Credit: Capri23auto